Lithuania (local: Lietuvos Respublika) is a country in Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia, west of Belarus. The capital is Vilnius.

Independent between the two World Wars, Lithuania was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions. Lithuania joined the EU in 2004.





Vilnius, capital of Lithuania (photo



Map Lithuania




Administrative divisions: 10 counties (apskritys, singular - apskritis); Alytaus, Kauno, Klaipedos, Marijampoles, Panevezio, Siauliu, Taurages, Telsiu, Utenos, Vilniaus.

Terrain: lowland, many scattered small lakes. Fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits. Highest point: Juozapines / Kalnas 292  m.

Total area: 65,200 km². Coastline: 99 km.

Climate: transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers.

Ports and harbors: Butinge, Kaunas, Klaipeda.


Population: 2.8 million (2018).

Religions: Roman Catholic 77.2%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Old Believer 0.8%, Evangelical Lutheran 0.6%, Evangelical Reformist 0.2%, other (including Sunni Muslim, Jewish, Greek Catholic, and Karaite) 0.8%, none 6.1%, unspecified 10.1% (2011 est.).

Ethnic groups: Lithuanian 84.1%, Polish 6.6%, Russian 5.8%, Belarusian 1.2%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.2% (2011 est.).

Languages: Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other 0.9%, unspecified 3.5% (2011).

Main source: CIA - The World Factbook.


Cross Hill, Siauliai District, Lithuania. Since the 19th century, people from from all over Lithuania and other countries erect crosses on this Hill in gratitude to God.






Trakai Castle in southeastern Lithuania.


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Vilnius Lithuania








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Castle Lithuania