Luxembourg (Grand Duche de Luxembourg) is a landlocked country in Western Europe, between France and Germany. The capital is Luxembourg.
Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community.
Administrative divisions: 3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg.
Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast. Highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m.
Total area: 2,586 km².
Climate: modified continental with mild winters, cool summers.
Population: 605,764 (July 2018 est.)
Religions: Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic) 70.4%, Muslim 2.3%, other (includes Buddhist, folk religions, Hindu, Jewish) 0.5%, none 26.8% (2010 est.).
Ethnic groups: Luxembourger 52.1%, Portuguese 16%, French 7.6%, Italian 3.6%, Belgian 3.4%, German 2.2%, Spanish 1.1%, British 1%, other 13% (2018 est.).
Languages: Luxembourgish (official administrative and judicial language and national language (spoken vernacular)) 55.8%, Portuguese 15.7%, French (official administrative, judicial, and legislative language) 12.1%, German (official administrative and judicial language) 3.1%, Italian 2.9%, English 2.1%, other 8.4% (2011 est.).
Main source: CIA - The World Factbook.
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