Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Ethiopia is a country in northeastern Africa. It
is bounded on the northeast by Eritrea and Djibouti, on the east and southeast
by Somalia, on the southwest by Kenya, and on the west and northwest by Sudan. A
high plateau capped with rugged mountains covers much of Ethiopia; lowland
deserts surround the plateau region.
Known as Abyssinia until the 20th century, Ethiopia is the oldest independent
nation in Africa. It was home to the powerful Christian kingdom of Aksum that
flourished from around the first century AD. After the 16th century, Ethiopia divided
into a number of small kingdoms, which were reunified by Menelik II in the
1880s. Eritrea, which had been part of Ethiopia since the 1950s, became an
independent nation in 1993 after a civil war. Addis Ababa is Ethiopia’s capital
and largest city.
Map (edited): U.S. Central Intelligence Agency,