Country name: Principality of Andorra (local: Principat d'Andorra).
Government type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives. Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May 1993.
Independence: 1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of the French count of Foix and the Spanish bishop of Urgel).
Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria.
Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys. Highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m (lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m).
Total area: 468 km².
Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers.
Population: 85,708 (2018 est.).
Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant).
Ethnic groups: Andorran 48.8%, Spanish 25.1%, Portuguese 12%, French 4.4%, other 9.7% (2017).
Language: Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese.
Main source: CIA - The World Factbook.
Estany Moreno, summer (photo www.turisme.ad).
Copyright © Geographic Guide - Travel European Continent.
For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Urgel. In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra achieved considerable prosperity in the second half of the 20th century, through its tourist industry. Many immigrants are attracted to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes. The capital is Andorra la Vella.
Vall del Madriu em Andorra.